Sunday, March 15, 2020
Health Care in Southeast Asia during the 1500s Essay Example
Health Care in Southeast Asia during the 1500s Essay Example Health Care in Southeast Asia during the 1500s Paper Health Care in Southeast Asia during the 1500s Paper The use of tobacco and bindis in SE Asia are explored with regard to their medicinal, leisure and negative physiological affects in this book. Prakash and colleagues look also to past practices of the use of tobacco and other smoking sticks in this region across history to identify health consequences from a biopsychosocial viewpoint. It is clear that even during the 16th century health practitioners were aware of the life threatening consequences of the use of cigarettes; cancers of the mouth, lung, larynx, pharynx and oesophagus; diseases of the heart, circulatory system and lungs. At this time it was not recognized that if used during pregnancy, smoking in whatever its form would have adverse effects on the fetus. The authors highlight the ongoing economic, agricultural and social importance tobacco and other smoking sticks can have on a nation and individual perceptions of being. Widodo, J. (1996) The urban history of the Southeast Asian coastal cities. Retrieved Widodo evaluates socio-cultural practices of the southern part of the South China rim: Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, which are located at the crossing point for the maritime trade between India and China in the 16th century. Going beyond the general studies which have investigated sociological institutions of this are, Widodo seeks a context to the social value placed on health and delivery of health care services. He is particularly concerned with the way in social practices such as health care changed with a globalizing world. As major cities along the coast (e.g., Tuban, Surabaya, Pattani and Malaka) became centers of the international exchange of goods and services, entreports were created. Noted is the slow adherence to western forms of medicine amongst those in the populace who were especially orthodox in their religious beliefs (i.e., Islamic, Hindu and Buddhist). Leslie, C. M. (1998) Asian Medical Systems: A Comparative Study. Madrid: Motilal Banarsidass Publications. Leslie reviews the age of commerce that existed in SE Asia during the 16th century. He emphasizes the dominance of Arabic and Islamic medicine in the region, noting that India and Pakistan were really the only nations at the time to formally record the specific scientific practices at this time which were interweaved with medicine. Arabic medicine, known as Unani, or Ã¢â¬Å"GreekÃ¢â¬ , identifies where the Arabic form of medicine was drawn from. Thus Islamic practitioners at the time took over Greek medicine when they were exposed to it at an earlier social age. However, Leslie points out that many orthodox Islamic worshippers refused to endorse this hybrid form of health care. Overall, it is reported in the book that the SE Asian region saw fierce competition amongst the medical practices of the time, with Islamic extremists choosing to adopt practices that they considered were Ã¢â¬Å"sanctionedÃ¢â¬ by The Prophet. The book also compares the coexistence of the variety of health practices at the time and the influence that large and long established populations such as those of China and India had on medical traditions that were maintained. Importantly, Leslie points out those dietary guidelines about Ã¢â¬Å"hotÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"coldÃ¢â¬ foods were abided by the general population to aid digestion and so exhibited social-selection of disease preventing behavior. Amrith, S.S. (2001) Decolonizing international health: India and Southeast Asia, 1930-65.